Study material PHYSICS Class 12th for CBSE Examination

PHYSICS notes for class 12 


Here, you get detailed study material  in the form of hand written notes for 12th PHYSICS. The material is more than sufficient for C.B.S.E. and various state board examinations. To enjoy and deeply understand the concepts of physics you can visit our YouTube Channel-Physics by Dr H Singh. 


Electrostatics Download Page

Electrostatics is a part of electromagnetism, which is the combination of electric and magnetic phenomenaYou are surrounded by so many devices like computers, television, radio, telecommunications, household lighting that depend on the physics of electromagnetism. The electromagnetic forces are responsible to hold all the atoms and molecules in the world and also produce  lightning, auroras, and rainbows. We begin our study of electricity with electrostatics, the study of charges at rest.  This unit is very important for IIT-JEE and NEET examinations. About 2-3 questions are being asked from this chapter in every year. 
This boy is enjoying the effects of electrically charging his body. Each individual hair on his head becomes charged and exerts a repulsive force on the other hairs, resulting in the “stand-up” hairdo seen here. 

Current Electricity Download Page


In this unit we understand the how the electric current is setup in a closed circuit. We look at direct-current (dc) circuits, which are circuits where the direction of the current in a circuit element does not vary with time. Direct currents can be produced by batteries connected to resistors and capacitors. We learn to find electric current and potential difference in DC circuit branches with the help of Kirchhoff Laws. We learn to calculate net voltage and resistance offered by a combination of cells to a circuit. This unit is very important for IIT-JEE and NEET examinations. About 2-3 questions are being asked from this chapter in every year.
All these wires that you see on poles have a definite amount of current which can be calculated by Kirchhoff's laws ;)

Magnetic effects of current Download Page


In this unit we study the magnetic field produced by the moving charges in a current element. We then calculate the magnetic fields produced by some common current configurations, such as a straight-wire segment; a long, straight wire; a current loop; and a solenoid. Next we discuss Ampere's law. Then we consider the effects of a given magnetic field on moving charges and on wires carrying currents. Finally, we consider the magnetic properties of matter. There will be direct questions from this unit under the category of 2 marks and 3 marks questions.

Magnetic levitation is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. Magnetic force is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational acceleration and any other accelerations.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current Download Page


This chapter explores the effects produced by magnetic fields that vary in time. Experiments conducted by Michael Faraday in England in 1831 and independently by Joseph Henry in the United States that same year showed that an emf can be induced in a circuit by a changing magnetic field. The results of these experiments led to a very basic and important law of electromagnetism known as Faraday law of induction. 

          Every time you turn on a television set, a computer, or any of a multitude of other electrical appliances in a home, you are calling on alternating currents to provide the power to operate them. We begin our study by investigating the characteristics of simple series circuits that contain resistors, inductors, and capacitors and that are driven by a sinusoidal voltage. The primary aim of this chapter can be summarized as follows: if an AC source applies an alternating voltage to a series circuit containing resistors, inductors, and capacitors, we want to know the amplitude and time characteristics of the alternating current. We conclude this chapter with two sections concerning transformers and AC generator.

Changing the amount of magnetic field with time around a coil sets up the electrons inside coil into motion and thereby produces electric current; the key to electricity generation systems.

Electromagnetic Waves Download page

This chapter is concerned with the properties of electromagnetic waves, which (unlike mechanical waves) can propagate through empty space. We learn how electromagnetic waves are generated by oscillating electric charges. The waves radiated from the oscillating charges can be detected at great distances. Furthermore, because electromagnetic waves carry energy and momentum, they can exert pressure on a surface. The chapter concludes with a description of the various frequency ranges in the electromagnetic spectrum.
This image of the Eagle Nebula taken with visible light shows a variety of colors, with each color representing a different wavelength of visible light.  

 Optics Download Page

This chapter is concerned with the images that result when light rays encounter flat or curved surfaces between two media. In the first part named Ray Optics, we use the ray approximation and assume light travels in straight lines. We first study the formation of images by mirrors and lenses and techniques for locating an image and determining its size.  We can design mirrors and lenses to form images with desired characteristics.Then we investigate how to combine these elements into several useful optical instruments such as microscopes and telescopes. 
In second part, we are concerned with wave optics, sometimes called physical optics, the study of interference, diffraction, and polarization of light. We now learn how treating light as waves rather than as rays leads to a satisfying description of such phenomena.

An optical instrument named Hubble space telescope, orbiting in space around earth since 1990, looking deep into the universe, works on the principles of reflection and refraction of light.
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation Download Page
  
   In this chapter, we begin by discussing some basic properties of light and electrons, examining their wave and particle characteristics.We will study the experimental study of photoelectric effect and Einstein's theory to solve the mysteries of experimental observations. We then consider some of the detailed properties of matter waves

 This is a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of exoskeleton surface of a mosquito's anterior head region. It would have not been possible without the development of quantum physics.
Atoms and Nuclei

In this unit, we will begin the study of atom from Geiger-Marsden Experiment and Rutherford model of atom which is based on classical theory. We will continue our study of atoms by discussing the Bohr model, a semiclassical model developed by Niels Bohr in 1913 to explain the electromagnetic spectra produced by hydrogen atoms. 

In the next part, we study the properties of atomic nuclei, examine radioactivity, and explore nuclear reactions. We also discuss fission and fusion. The fission of very heavy nuclei, such as uranium, is a major source of power today, while the fusion of very light nuclei is the energy source that powers the stars, including our Sun, and may hold the key to our energy needs of the future.


Study material PHYSICS Class 12th for CBSE Examination Study material PHYSICS Class 12th for CBSE Examination Reviewed by Dr H. Singh on May 11, 2020 Rating: 5
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